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Major Projects

_____ 2018 _______________________________________________

  1. Constructing Machine-Learning Algorithm for Weld Sequence Design of Panel with 4 welds

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP) Fund
    Role: Project Manager, Business Developer, and Technical Lead

    The objective of the project was to develop special weld tools which can be used to predict welding distortion using a machine learning algorithm. The distortion planner is expected to help design the sequence of welding in panel structures such that the final distortion is significantly reduced at a reasonable computational time to achieve the best sequence.

     


  2. Localized Post-Weld Heat Treatment Planning For Nuzzle Welding On Existing Large Diameter Pipe

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Jewel Welding for BC Hydro – Vancouver BC
    Role: Simulation Manager

    Jewel Welding was contracted by BC Hydro to perform repair welding on in-line penstock pipe with 10-inch diameter including nozzles. BC Hydro required PWHT to be performed on thick weld region (> 1”) that connects nozzles to penstock for residual stress relief. By standard, PWHT requires full circumference heating in soak band, heat band and gradient band around the penstock. This resulted in massive cost implication to heat 10-inch diameter pipe. Jewel called s to develop an optimal configuration that can meet the heating and residual stress of the BC Hydro while the number of heating pads is minimal. We modeled over 20 progressive scenarios with a comparison to the standard PWHT in order to optimize heat, deflection and residual stress after PWHT. We prepared a custom-made bulls eyes configuration for Jewel Welding to properly perform PWHT and meet the BC Hydro‘s requirement while lower the cost of implementation.

     


  3. Reach Stacker Spindle Failure Analysis

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: DP World – Prince Rupert BC
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Four failures have occurred in relatively low service hours during routine operation of spindles at one of the largest multi-user container terminal, and therefore the owner was looking for a solution to determine the safe duty cycle or service life of these spindles under typical operating conditions. A failure occurs under a mixed mechanism of tearing and fracture failure. The tearing failure caused by local stresses concentration exceeding the ultimate tensile strength of the remaining ligament of the spindle, and, the fracture failure associated with the formation of a fatigue crack. These machines were subjected to a lot of stress on the steer axle component ranging from aggressive operators to unreported excessive loading. In order to estimate a safe service life, a key part is to properly approximate the loading condition that best represents the real operating condition. We use a reverse procedure in accordance with BS7910 to explore the loading condition for the observed crack shape forms the fracture surface at the start of spindle instability to fail. This load was then be fed into safe life calculation where we model and track the behaviour of crack from the initial to failure in order to determine a typical life expectation and determine a safe life duty cycle for this operating condition.

     


  4. Updating the Prediction of Crack Behaviour in the Weld Toe of the KOBM Lower Vessel Locking Inner Bracket with a new PAUT data

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Arcelor Mittal Dofasco – Hamilton ON
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    We previously (Dec 2017) estimated the life of the KOBM vessel from the inspection done in November 2017. This calculation was based on the assumption of a planar crack growth across the wall thickness. However, based on an inspection performed in May 2018 using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT), it revealed that the crack has grown non-planar with deviation underneath the bracket. Therefore we re-calculated the life based on the new observation and updated the life of the vessel to with new data as of inspection in May 2018. We re-calculated a safe inspection interval based on the worst operating condition to mitigate the risk of missing a critical failure condition. We re-rated the vessel at temperatures up to 330 °C.

     


  5. Stress Intensity Calculation of Ultra High Cycle Fatigue in Stainless Steel Welded Product

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Etalim Inc - Vancouver BC
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Etalim manufactured a component which is part of an innovative product for generating electricity from waste heat using thermo-acoustic vibration. The component is made of 15-5 stainless steel and circumferentially welded by electron beam welding (EBW) process in a single side groove weld design with no backing. The component is subjected to ultra-high cycle fatigue at 500 Hz frequency and cracking has been initiated from the inevitable incomplete fusion left at the weld root. Etalim is exploring the principal engineering underlying this cracking in order to find a solution to extend the life of component beyond the 10^12 cycles. Etalim performed a linear finite element analysis to minimize the effect of stress including the notch factor where assured that the magnitude of stress is below the fatigue endurance limit to initiate a flaw to failure. Yet, some concerns stayed to explore and SKC has been asked to carry out the work. Even an optimal setting of EBW on this single-groove-design results in an incomplete fusion admixture at the weld’s root. This non-uniform unmixed root acts as a crack and intensifies the stress and therefore limits the life. We performed an analysis for simulating the fracture behavior by embedding an identical crack into our FEA model. The Stress Intensity Factor (SIF), K was computed. The ideal is that K remains below threshold SIF, Kth, to avoid fracture due to crack propagation. Welding residual stress was not included in the analysis, and therefore, welding residual stress was experimentally measured using the contour method. This state of stress was imported into the FEA domain and The Stress Intensity Factor (SIF), K was computed and compared with no-residual stress case. A sensitivity analysis was followed for a change in depth of the root defect. Our model and information supported SKC and Etalim to render some new design where the location and orientation of weld lessen K while feasible to other practical factors.

     


  6. Re-rating CJP joints with an optimal PJP for a foundation structure of a ship’s gearbox

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Seaspan – Vancouver Drydock
    Role: Weld Analysis and Simulation Manager

    Seaspan was welding a foundation for a new gearbox to replace an old one in the ship. The new gearbox was stronger in propulsion with the higher moment, larger, and heavier. A new foundation was designed by 3GA Marine Engineering for placing the new gearbox in this structure. The foundation was subjected to a dynamic loading due to the nature of gearbox’s operation, and therefore, CJP weld was required by the standard for all weld joints. However, it was practically limited and the design team was looking for a case-specific analysis to evaluate if they can use PJP weld. We evaluated the weld joints under combined static and dynamic loading of the gearbox at peak operating condition and rated all welds ranging from critical, moderate and non-critical for deviation from CJP weld. Few critical locations remain to be welded CJP however, Majority of welds were rated either moderate or non-critical for CJP. We also calculated an optimal PJP configuration for candidates with the moderate rating such that the depth of penetration is not less than a critical depth for this structure.

     


  7. Heat Sink Analysis of Multipass Pipe Welding

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Liburdi Automation
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Liburdi Automation requested SKC Engineering (Applus) to perform a weld modeling and simulation analysis for heat sink calculation of a multipass welding procedure involving 189 welds on a thick pipe in order to define a minimum length of pipe that can be used for procedure qualification where this length represents the production welding pipe length that is equivalent to an unlimited length. We modeled the weld procedure using AWI Abaqus package including the transient thermal analysis of preheating, all weld passes and final cool down. A transient thermal map of this welding procedure was generated and the objective was to define a minimum transverse distance from the weld region where the thermal effect is fading. In other words, a minimum length of pipe where a longer pipe will have no effect on the thermal map generated by the welding procedure. This length will be used for Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).

     


_____ 2017 _______________________________________________

  1. Remaining useful life prediction for crack in the weld toe of the KOBM Lower Vessel Locking Inner Bracket

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Arcelor Mittal Dofasco – Hamilton ON
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    A crack was identified on the weld toe of the KOBM Lower Vessel Locking Inner Bracket in 2007. Previously, an FEA analysis partially modeled the service condition of the vessel for thermal and stress analysis accompanied by IR measurement of the surface temperature on the tap side. The study showed the cracking driving force is the thermal stress fluctuation through the thickness with stress riser at the weld toe. Another part performed an initial integrity assessment and concluded that the crack is safely sub-critical and monitoring was recommended rather than repair. The crack was monitored every 6 months without repair, and crack growth data have been collected over a relatively long period of time. Recently a higher crack propagation rate presented a high risk to the vessel integrity. Therefore, ArcelorMittal and Steel Making Technology want to know the remaining useful life of the vessel using more accurate analysis to arrive at “repair” or “no-repair” decision which is deemed in the scope of this project. We used the history of crack growth to back-calculate the opening stress on the crack surface. This load was then used to predict the life until the stress intensity factor reaches the fracture toughness of the embrittled materials. This toughness was experimentally measured by extracting a sub-size sample from the wall of the Bracket that has already been emabritteled.

     


  2. Weld Defect Critical Assessment of Power Transfer Tower

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: SaskPower
    Role: Modeling and Fracture Analysis Lead

    Bundled 230kV double circuit power transfer towers were built for SaskPower. On delivery, numerous defect was detected during ultrasonic testing that resulted in the rejection of towers. We were asked to assess the criticality of flaw detected and develop criteria for Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA). The ECA is used to develop acceptance & rejection decision for a custom ultrasonic inspection procedure for this plate size. A full-scale FEM model of the pole was created subjected to the design loading including axial, shear and moment loads defined by the designer on connections. Among different pole’s connections, we compared the criticality of the connections in terms of stress magnitude and determined which connection experiences the highest magnitude of local stress for ECA. Key components of local stress, namely axial stress, shear stress, and von-mises stress, was verified and assured to be equal or above the analytical solutions presented in the Handbook of Steel Construction for the similar tower. ECA then embed simulated linear defect into the worst location of the weld and compute the stress intensity factor, K, under the design loading. There is an iteration process of computing K where the defect’s dimensions (length and width) are changing. To avoid any crack growing, we used K less than Kth MPa-m1/2 as our threshold to determine the size of the acceptable defect. Based on this analysis we will then specify acceptance & rejection criteria for the welds in question.

     


  3. Mine Tubbing Bolt Failure Fracture Modeling and Analysis

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: BHP Billition – Potash Shaft Planning
    Role: Modeling and Fracture Analysis Lead

    We were involved in the failure investigation of an M36 bolt from cast iron tubbing that was failed during service. The investigation led to believe the failure occurred under a mixed mechanism of tearing and fracture failure. BS7910 standard provides an assessment option under the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) where both mechanisms are active. A typical procedure uses the loading condition and the crack shape to determine if the structure is safe (i.e. the structure will not fail under the mixed effect). We used a reverse procedure in accordance with BS7910 to define the loading condition for the observed crack shape forms the fracture surface at the start of bolt instability to fail. The objective is to determine loading level that the bolt was exposed at the final failure point.

     


  4. Phase IV: 3D Out-of-plane Analysis of Crack Growth in Sleeve & Socket CuNi Welds

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: BabCock Canada Inc. and Canada Department of National Defence
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    We previously carried out studies to develop a decision matrix for making a repair or waive decision on available piping systems on the submarine HMCS Chicoutimi in accordance with BS 7910-2013 for linear defects such as incomplete penetration, lack of fusion & non-metallic inclusions. Previously we had carried out analyses for in-plane growth for detected flaws. In this work, the evolution of the detected crack front is predicted in 3D under mixed fatigue loading and the 3D model of crack growth captures the transient change of stress intensity factor along the crack front and therefore the immediate change in the direction of crack growth and the dynamic shape of crack can be predicted. A solution was developed with a team of Zencrack software for handling the stress intensity factor on the boundary of weld metal and base metal when the crack front reaches the weld fusion line. From the structural integrity management viewpoint, the number of fatigue cycles, time for the crack to start growing, time to break to surface and leak-before-break, and the total time to final fracture were calculated. We have also completed a sensitivity analysis to various sources of non-ideal external loading including angular misalignment, axial misalignment, pressure fluctuations and the weight of the pipe & sleeve, as well as the effect of a non-ideal weld geometry (convexity).

     


  5. Weld Sequence Design for Close-Fitting Tolerance

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Seaspan-Victoria Shipyard
    Role: Weld Distortion Control and Analysis Lead

    We were asked to provide welding engineering support for fabrication and installation of steel structure supporting Universal Modular Masts (UMMs) within the HMCS Cornerbrook fin. The design for the structure specified HY-80 plate, cut and joined into built-up shapes that form the members of the structure. All joints were to be welded, with the majority of welds specified as complete joint penetration groove welds. Given a large number of welds and a considerable volume of weld metal, the inevitable welding induced distortion was expected to be significant. In order to meet the required dimensional tolerances of the design, distortion mitigation methods must be implemented. The number of weld joints and relatively complex geometry of the structure precluded prediction of welding distortion in the structure by analytical approaches. Therefore, we employed the strategic use of numerical welding simulation for this application. The resultant quantitative information was then used to develop an optimal weld sequence, fixtures, and the correct presetting clearances/angles. This approach eliminated mock-ups, minimize corrective work and re-work and reduced material waste.

     


  6. Weld Defect Evaluation on MV Salish Sea Dreams Catamaran

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Armstrong Marine
    Role: Modeling and Fracture Analysis Lead

    The MV Salish Sea dreams is a 23-meter aluminum catamaran built for Transport Canada. Inspection & non-destructive testing requirements were not defined by the purchaser as such the only inspections carried out were visual inspections of the final welds. Once the catamaran was near completion a representative from Transport Canada asked for inspection & non-destructive testing and welds were reported to have failed due to lack of fusion type defects and excessive porosity. To investigate the effect of the observed lack of fusion in the chine welds we carried out a stress analysis under loading equivalent to slamming pressure to the hull. A number of example chine welds were welded and radiographed to confirm that they were typical of those observed on the actual boat. These welds were then cut and polished for flaw characterization. The worst lack of fusion defect was inserted into the weld model with sharp tips (0.5 mm cracks). Stress intensity factors at the crack tips, under loading, were then calculated using the J-integral methodology, and compared to known data for the threshold stress required for crack growth. As such we recommend that repair of welds be limited to a few critical regions and repair course of actions were recommended.

     


_____ 2016 _______________________________________________

  1. Service Life Prediction and Comparison of 4 Commonly Used Welded Flat Head Designs by ASME Sc. I for Heat Recovery Steam Generator

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Failure has been observed to occur on grade P91 alloy flat head closures in Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG), operating at high temperature (>538°C) and high pressure (>125 bar), after a relatively low in-service life. Since creep is expected to be the major failure mechanism, creep analysis and creep life prediction was conducted on four commonly used flat head designs. We have previously shown that failure of welded P91 material is highly dependent on the material properties in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). As such we modeled a common multilayer welding procedure to determine the local material properties of both the Coarse Grain and Fine Grain HAZ for each flat head design. Once the final material properties were obtained, we exposed each simulated flat head to typical operational conditions and calculated the total stress and temperature at each node. With this, we then used a validated Deformation Mechanism Map (DMM) for the P91 alloy to determine the creep rate at each node. This allowed us to identify areas that are susceptible to creep and to approximate the creep life and compare commonly used flat head designs.

     


  2. Phase III: Analysis of Crack Growth in CuNi Welds; Critical Welds with Linear Indications

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: BabCock Canada Inc. and Canada Department of National Defence
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Based on phase I and II studies Babcock Canada Inc. (BCI) and the Department of National Defence Design Authority identified a subset of approximately thirty (30) welds for which they would like further studies involving an Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) for each weld containing linear type defects (lack of fusion, incomplete penetration, non-metallic inclusions)to be carried out in accordance with BS EN 7910-2013 using the numerical analysis method for fracture modeling and analysis of the remaining useful life. Using digitized radiographs an analysis was performed to build a 3D map of each weld with flaws embedded. This map gives the location, size, shape, and orientation of each flaw in the joint as well as the actual weld height and leg length. Based on this we prepare an initial model of each weld with identical defects and modelled in accordance with associated clause in BS EN 7910-2013.

     

     


  3. Phase II: Continue with Failure Assessment of Fatigue Life in CuNi Pipe; Safe Region, Low-Pressure Systems, and Life Contour

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: BabCock Canada Inc. and Canada Department of National Defence
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Phase II analysis on “Assessment of Fatigue Life in CuNi Pipe – Fillet Welds & Butt Welds” address below topics that remain open from Phase I (see list of projects); 1) Sensitivity analysis with respect to the variation in defect location, variation in defect interspacing, and variation in fit-up gap size; 2) Metallurgical notch effect that studies the effect of difference in material properties between weld metal and base metal including stress-strain curve, fatigue endurance limit, and crack growth rate; 3) Welding residual stress analysis based on welding modeling for understanding the combined effect of operational stress in the presence of residual stress on fatigue life of weldments; 4) Carry out experimental tests for measurement of realistic material properties including crack growth rate in both weld metal and base metal to be fed into model; & 5) Developing an acceptance/rejection matrix to be followed by weld radiographer in case of deviation from applied standard.

     


_____ 2015 _______________________________________________

  1. Welding Engineering of EverGreen Transit Line's Tunnel Boring Machine Repair

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering
    Client: SSJV - SNC-Lavalin for City of Vancouver
    Role: Project Manager and Modeling & Simulation Technical Lead

    The Evergreen line is a new transit line that will connect Coquitlam region at the East of Vancouver to metro Vancouver via several major population centers. The line is 11 km long consists of ground level lines, elevated lines and 2 km of an underground tunnel to be excavated by Alice i.e. the name of giant Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) used. The capital cost of this new transit line were $ 1.5 billion, TBM was built by Caterpillar and bought by SNC-Lavalin $ 20 million new. Alice started her first underground journey in March 2014 from the northeast site with operation at depth of 50 meters underground until several major damages to the cutter head stopped her from operation midway of boring on June 17th, 2015. Repair welding was required on all sections of the cutter head and SKC Engineering was selected to lead associated welding engineering tasks. The project covered tasks such as welder qualifications, writing and qualifying tens of WPS & PQR, several lab tests, weld design, and continuous onsite weld inspection 100% VT, MT. Additional to my role as project manager, in terms of technical aspects, my group directed all modeling and simulation tasks in support of weld designs and repair scenarios from TBM engineers.

     


  2. Phase I: Assessment of Fatigue Life in CuNi Pipe; Fillet Welds & Butt Welds

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering
    Client: BabCock Canada Inc.
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Defects have been detected through Radiographic Testing (RT) in Copper-Nickel 70-30 piping in numerous fillet and butt welds on the Victoria Class submarine HMCS Chicoutimi. SKC Engineering has been asked to review and present an underlying principle and methodology in support of decisions on the suitability of the defective welds, their likely failure modes, and safe-life under service conditions. This assessment follows the principles of engineering critical assessment presented in BS EN 7910-2013 in accordance with paragraph 6.2 of DEF-STAN 02-773 issue-3. Specifically, the assessment uses the procedure outlined in Appendix B of the 2013 edition of BS EN 7910. Welding flaws including Porosity and Lack Of Fusion and Burn Through type defects were detected. A CGSB Level III certified RT technician interpreted the films (3D) and extracted the flaws’ shape, size, and embedded position. FEA model was prepared including an identical configuration of those defects and stress analysis was conducted under the loading condition of the system. Safe life approach and damage tolerance analysis were both employed to determine the remaining useful life for HIRA assessment.

     


Minor Projects

_____ 2018 _______________________________________________

  1. Review of joint information and advice on weld procedure

    SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Seaspan – Vancouver Drydock
    Role: Welding Consultant

    Seaspan was welding a Stern Bossing made of DIN 1681 GS 45, non-alloy cast steel. American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) required an engineering review of joint information and advice on weld procedure and would like to know if Seaspan can use an already approved weld procedure.


     

_____ 2017 _______________________________________________

  1. Heating Scenarios for Straightening of distorted AXP Deck Insert

    SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Seaspan-Victoria Shipyard
    Role: FEA Analysis Lead

    AXP deck insert was previously welded for part of the submarine. The initial welding design did not include proper strong backing to avoid distortion in the circumferential curve that became largely out of tolerance after welding was done. The complexity and high stiffness in the structure resulted in developing complex scenarios for bringing it into tolerance. Since mechanical straightening was not practical, a series of heat straightening was proposed. However, the welding engineers left with no clue to decide which scenario is effective and can help counter-balancing the distortion without further problem to the structure. Therefore, we were asked to model different scenarios for engineering assessment of the output in order to pick and improve the most effective one for implementation.

     


  2. Failure Analysis – Water Wall Turbine

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering – Applus+ Canada
    Client: Industrial Equipment Manufacturing Ltd (IEM)
    Role: Modeling and Stress Analysis Lead

    The Dent Island Tidal Power Generation Project is a 500-kilowatt tidal energy generator designed by Water Wall Turbine Inc. (WWT) and fabricated by Industrial Equipment Manufacturing Ltd (IEM). The generator consists of a floating structure that is anchored in a water channel (river or tidal channel), housing a paddle-wheel type turbine/rotor coupled to an electrical generator. The generator turbine fractured during initial operation. IEM requested us to determine the mode of failure and possible causes. Part of this failure investigation, A 3D model of the rotor was produced including the flange to shaft fillet welds in the model, using leg dimensions measured on the actual rotor welds. The finite element method was used to carry out a stress analysis of the rotor to determine the principal stresses at and surrounding the fillet weld. The “hot-spot” approach laid out in BS 7608-14 was used to estimate the fatigue life of the rotor under the stress conditions calculated in the above analysis.

     


_____ 2016 _______________________________________________

  1. Failure Assessment of Weld Damage in the Deh Cho Bridge of the Mackenzie River on the Yellowknife HWY

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: Ruskin Construction
    Role: Modeling and Stress Analysis Lead

    On removal temporary welds performed during erection work on Deh Cho Bridge, cracks were discovered in the cap plates of three Piers. The cracks were repaired by grinding according to instructions provided by a third party engineer, with the exception of weld crack damage on one of the pier. All of the crack excavations were blended into the surrounding material at a 10% transition per AWS D1.5, however on this pier, the excavation to remove crack was left with a much sharper transition. Further grinding was not possible due to conflict with the bearing and lock up device shim and connection plates. Ruskin Construction requested that SKC Engineering conduct full 3D stress and damage analysis on this Pier to determine the effect of the stress rise due to the unfavourable excavation shape. The intent is to determine the relationship between the service load on the disc bearing and the local stress at the excavation as well as the likelihood of fatigue crack initiation at this location.

     


  2. Safety Risk Investigation of Rail Rack under 4G Deceleration

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: Falcon Equipment Ltd
    Role: Modeling and Stress Analysis Lead

    SKC Engineering has been asked to evaluate if a new rail restraint system can sustain a 4G forward deceleration. Rail rack needs to be capable of hauling six (6) 136 lb/yd x 39' L rails, three (3) per side. A full 3D model of rail rack as per OEM specification was modelled and a compact analysis was performed to model the behavior of structure in an accident with 4G deceleration to assure no safety risk for the driver by a recommendation for a redesign.

     


  3. Writing Welding Instruction for Fatigue-Resistant Weld of a Dissimilar Metal.

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: Innovative Parts & Solutions (IPS) Ltd
    Role: Weld Engineer

    Innovative Parts & Solutions (IPS) Ltd is working with Ballard to fabricate a braced tubular box truss that includes joining 1 ¾ in base tubes and ¾ in upper tubes made of 70 ksi MOD steel to a machined A514 T1 base plate. The structure is designed to pass IEC61373 test including 5 hours of a fatigue testing. SKC Engineering was asked to write up generic technical work instructions for a single pass weld that as a best practice. A basic weld size was included in the work instruction.


  4. Inspection and Assessment of Damage on Peace River Bridge at Fort Vermilion

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: Innovative Civil Construction Inc (ICCI)
    Role: Modeling and Stress Analysis Lead

    Innovative Civil Constructors Inc. (ICCI) had SKC Engineering to inspect damage in the highway 88 bridge over the Peace River at Fort Vermilion Alberta. According to ICCI, the damage was caused by the collision of an excavator's arm with the bridge steel girder. ICCI asked SKC-Applus Engineering to assess the effect of damage on the fatigue life of the bridge, and determine the required repairs (if any) to the bridge. A 3D FEA model of the affected girder span (including the damage) was created. Numerical stress analysis was then conducted by the finite element method and the local hot spot stresses at stress concentrations at the deformation site were then compared to a standard S-N curve and assessed against the modified Goodman diagram for a safe life.

     


  5. Engineering Assessment of Pipe Damage Removal Procedure

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering - ApplusRTD Canada
    Client: Seaspan Victoria Shipyard
    Role: Technical Lead

    Some small damages were accidentally introduced onto the surface of a number of Copper-Nickel 70-30 piping systems on a submarine under inspection. SKC-Applus RTD developed a procedure to remove these damages and the procedure was approved for pipes that are not pressurized, however, SKC Engineering was asked to carry out an assessment on the repair of piping systems that remain pressurized; as it will take significant resource to depressurize these systems. The purpose of the assessment was to identify any risks to the system during the pressurized repair process; we achieve this through a full 3D FEA model of the pipe system with the damages.

     


_____ 2015 _______________________________________________

  1. Welding QA Audit and site visits during fabrication of a Chlorine CO2 separation tower, shell, condenser, CO2 reboiler shell and Chiller.

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering
    Client: Niacet Corp to Audit Axton Manufacturer
    Role: Project Manager and Auditor

    SKC was contracted and I became responsible to perform welding QA audit including random welding inspection to confirm the quality of welds, confirm Axton is manufacturing according to design criteria from designer (Noram Inc.) and approved documentation, confirm Axton is testing welds according to the design drawings, specification and code requirements, witness NDT, PWHT, and pressure testing, assure ITP was properly implemented, and report observations continuously to the client from material purchase to final shipment.


  2. In-service Failure Assessment of 4140 Shiploader Bolt

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering
    Client: Ruskin Construction
    Role: Project Manager and Technical Lead

    A shiploader bolt 2.5” OD material 4140 galvanized was failed in service and the supplier called SKC to determine if the failure is due to manufacturing fault. An assessment based on ASTM A490 and F519 (Hydrogen Embrittlement) was conducted including MT (surface crack), UT (internal crack), Tensile Test (mechanical property), Hardness (Jomnney), and Chemical analysis. A recommendation was submitted based on observations and results.


  3. Thermal Stress Calculation in Heat Exchanger

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering
    Client: Sacre-Davey Engineering
    Role: Technical Lead

    A heat exchanger originally made of A516 Gr70 carbon steel, the new design upgraded tubes to 316L, a problem raised to address the stress caused by the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between carbon steel (plug sheet, header box) and stainless steel tubes. FEA was used to calculate this stress under operation and design pressure and temperature.


  4. Optimal PWHT Design for Meeting Standard Recommendation

    Affiliation: SKC Engineering
    Client: McNally / Aecon JV
    Role: Modeling and Simulation Consultant

    Maximum thermal gradient 0.6 °C/mm was recommended from BS 5500 & AS 1210 for PWHT of Port Mann Main Water Supply tunnel steel. A thermal model was used to investigate the effect of induction coil’s location, interspacing, heating power/time and insulation range for an optimal design.